Tag Archives: Risk Factor

Genital Warts: Men Need To Be Concerned Too

Only females can die from cervical cancer. Perhaps that is the reason why there has been so much recent emphasis and debate on producing and mandating a vaccine to prevent girls from acquiring the virus which causes the genital warts. Perhaps it is also the reason why most talk about irresponsible sexual activity is generally focused on girls and women. Where there is less focus, however, is that males can be equally responsible in preventing genital warts in themselves. Males can avoid contracting these warts, and can also avoid passing them on if they do become infected.

Given the status of American society today, it should not be surprising that for males as well as females the focus is not on conducing oneself in a responsible manner, but to take preventive measures while continuing risky behavior. Although males generally have much less chance of genital warts leading to life-threatening illnesses, studies show an average of an eighty-percent risk of acquiring genital warts during their lifetimes.

Studies rarely add that the primary risk factor is that of having numerous sexual partners. In that genital warts in men rarely lead to serious health conditions in themselves, the main concern is to not infect their partners with these warts.

One of the most recent studies on the subject of these warts has been by the Medical College of Georgia. The goal of these studies has been to perfect a vaccine made especially for men. The concept behind these studies was that even though men do not usually have life-threatening risks from warts, transmitting the infection to their partners is reason enough to take the issue seriously. Preventing males from acquiring any of the four strains of the virus which cause these warts would in turn prevent outbreaks of warts. This in turn would ensure the safety of their partners.

Although the Medical College of Georgia began its studies into the possibility of such a vaccine a number of years ago, at last check there have been no conclusive results. The College had been seeking test-subjects who had not yet developed genital warts. They were specifically looking for sexually-active males who were between the ages of sixteen and twenty-three, to participate in these research studies.

But while the Medical College of Georgia was also responsible for the largest similar research on this vaccine in women, the vaccine has not only been approved for but distributed to girls, while the vaccine for males has not been. As both males and females are susceptible to this virus, it would seem that preventing both from acquiring genital warts should be the same priority.

As those who have been conducting this research have lacked this priority, it leaves the subject of responsible conduct in the hands of men themselves.

How Physiotherapy Fits in with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment

Rheumatoid arthritis is not only a painful and debilitating disease. It is also a risk factor for other diseases such as heart disease and osteoporosis. Research shows that these diseases can be held off by exercise and other lifestyle changes.

For the sufferer of rheumatoid arthritis, life is a constant learning experience. Each time a new movement is done, one finds out if it makes the condition feel worse or better. Rheumatoid arthritis patients may feel fatigue. They will likely have a great amount of pain and stiffness in their joints.

Physiotherapy is one way to combat the effects of rheumatoid arthritis. This will be an ongoing therapy that will require dedication over the rest of the patient’s life. However, it is common that the exercises and other therapies help the rheumatoid arthritis so much that the patient will have incentive to keep doing them.

A physiotherapist understands how all the parts of one’s body work together to create movement. Bones, muscles, joints, ligaments, and tendons: the physiotherapist knows how they all fit to make one walk or stand. With this knowledge, the physiotherapist can devise methods to help one keep moving. This is the most important part of rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

Early in one’s treatment, the plan will take shape. It will include ways to prevent rheumatoid arthritis from disabling one. As time goes by, the focus will shift to a more here and now sort of treatment. Exercises will be geared more towards current problems.

Water exercises can be used for people with rheumatoid arthritis. These exercises allow the person to get much needed strengthening and stretching exercises done. At the same time, there is little or no pressure on the joints or spine. Physiotherapists use water exercises as an important part of the treatment plan.

Strengthening exercises help the muscles provide more support to the joints of people with rheumatoid arthritis. If there is not enough muscle tone, the patient will have more trouble walking or doing other normal movements. The rheumatoid arthritis will dominate the movements instead of the muscles dominating them.

Heat therapy can be used in conjunction with ice therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. A physiotherapist can tell the patient when and how long to leave on heat packs or ice packs. Other heat therapy is done by ultrasound.

People with rheumatoid arthritis can benefit from manual procedures, such as massage. A person with the stiffness that accompanies rheumatoid arthritis can be very limited in how far he can move his joints. Massage improves movement and increases this range dramatically.

One of the most important functions a physiotherapist serves for patients with rheumatoid arthritis is as a motivational coach. The physiotherapist should be trained in the psychology of chronic disorders and pain management. She will be there to encourage you to keep trying, keeping moving, and never giving up.

Physiotherapy is only a part of the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Diet and medications are also used, for example. Yet, without physiotherapy, many people who suffer from this disease would be in much worse pain.

Searching for Osteoarthritis Pain Relief?

Searching for Osteoarthritis Pain Relief?
Kristy Haugen

Osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease is a wear and tear disease of the joints typically seen in the older adult (usually over 60 years of age). Cartilage within the joints breaks down causing pain as the bones rub against each other. Osteoarthritis is commonly found in the knees, hips, hands, spine, and feet.
Obesity is a risk factor for developing osteoarthritis in the knees and hips. These weight bearing joints carry much of the weight causing increased wear and tear. Weight loss can significantly reduce the chance of developing osteoarthritis and can alleviate pain in people who currently have osteoarthritis.
Currently osteoarthritis treatment is limited because no medications are capable of preventing or retarding the disease process. Osteoarthritis treatment involves focusing on pain relief, the maintenance of quality of life, and functional independence. Let us take a look at some of the treatments that currently exist for osteoarthritis.
Many doctors recommend acetaminophen (Tylenol) as the initial analgesic (pain medication) of choice for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Acetaminophen has very few side effects. When using acetaminophen as a pain reliever, remember to follow the directions correctly. Acetaminophen is commonly overused by patients. You are recommended to not exceed 4,000 mg of acetaminophen in a twenty-four hour period. Acetaminophen is metabolized or processed by the liver. Excess acetaminophen can cause damage to the liver. Acetaminophen is also found in other pain medications such as Darvocet, Percocet, and Tylenol Cold. In fact, acetaminophen is found in quite a few prescription pain medications.
Traditionally NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) have been useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis associated pain. One major concern with the use of NSAIDs is irritation to the stomach lining. In more severe cases, gastrointestinal bleeds or ulcers may form. NSAIDs can affect the bodys blood clotting ability and interfere with kidney function. NSAIDs should always be taken with food to decrease stomach irritation or upset. Do not drink alcohol while taking NSAIDs. However, these drugs should not be taken for extended periods of time unless directed otherwise by a qualified medical provider. Some common types of NSAIDs are ibuprofen (Advil), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin.
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors) are a class of NSAIDs. COX-2 inhibitors suppress arthritis pain much the same way but with less stomach irritation. Many of us know of COX-2 inhibitors but not by this name. Vioxx (refecoxib), Celebrex (celecoxib), and Bextra (valdecoxib) are COX-2 inhibitors. Vioxx and Bextra have been removed from the market. These drugs can significantly increase the risk for stroke and heart attack. Celebrex remains on the market but does have a black box warning stipulating this drug also can increase the risk for cardiovascular events and gastrointestinal bleeding.
Capsaicin (Capsagel, Zostrix) which is derived from chili peppers can be applied topically for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain. Capsaicin will cause vasodilation, itching, and burning to the skin but after repeated applications desensitization will occur, decreasing ones pain. Methyl salicylate creams such as Ben-gay can also be used for osteoarthritis pain. Studies have shown that oral glucosamine and chondroitin supplements have a mild to moderate analgesic effect with arthritis.
For osteoarthritis patients who cannot tolerate their pain, glucocorticoid injections may be done. Glucocorticoids are similar to the hormone cortisol in the body. Glucocorticoids help alleviate pain by decreasing inflammation and swelling within the joint. Side effects are typically seen if you receive these injections too frequently.
Hyaluronan (viscosupplementation) injections can be injected directly into the joint for treatment of osteoarthritis. This medication helps supplement the synovial fluid. The synovial fluid is a lubricating fluid allowing the bones to move smoothly within the joint. This injection should relieve pain and improve your mobility of the joint. This treatment involves 3-5 shots within 5 weeks. You may experience pain and swelling after the injections but this should dissipate. Reduced osteoarthritis pain may last up to 6 months.
For patients that have decreased function and mobility of the joint, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgical involvement should also be considered in patients whose pain has progressed to unacceptable levels. However, good surgical candidates are usually considered ideal for surgery. Certain health conditions can affect post-operative rehabilitation and healing. Surgery can hold just as much of a health risk as medications have side effects.
Osteoarthritis is not curable but there is hope for the future with advancements in medicine. Along with the above treatments for pain management, it is also important to remain active and healthy. Exercising regularly can help maintain mobility of the joint. Exercise also creates natural pain relievers such as endorphins. Pain may be a part of osteoarthritis, but pain doesnt have to be a part of your life!
Copyright 2006 Kristy Haugen

About The Author

Kristy Haugen is a mother working to finish her second bachelor degree in Chemical Engineering. She is also a Licensed Practical Nurse with a current bachelor degree in Biology and Chemistry. She writes to inform consumers about nutrition and health topics. Learn more about weight loss supplements at http://weightlosssupplements.vitaminmaniac.com. Learn more about vitamins and your health at http://blog.vitaminmaniac.com.